17th Annual ECSS-Congress, Bruges 2012

Abstract details

Abstract-ID: 610
Session: [MO-SH09] Physical Education & Pedagogics
Lecture room: G105
Date & time: 03.07.2014 / 14:00 - 15:00
Title of the paper: Distinguishing between penalty kick strategies
Authors: NoŽl, B.1, Furley, P.1, van der Kamp, J.2, Dicks, M.2, Memmert, D.1
Institution: 1:German Sport University, 2:VU Amsterdam
Department: 1:Institute of Cognitive and Team/Racket Sport Research, 2: MOVE
Country: Germany
Abstract text Distinguishing between penalty kick strategies Introduction A small number of rules cause many aspects of penalty kicks in association football (e.g. ball position) to be constant. That seems to play a major role in the increasing prominence of penalty kicks as a research environment in sport science and related fields. However, penalty kick attempts can differ on aspects outside the official rules under which penalty kick strategy plays an important role (van der Kamp, 2006). Penalty kickers can either employ a keeper independent or keeper dependent strategy. Though there are indications that measures of interest (e.g. gaze behavior) differ dependent on the penalty kick strategy employed (NoŽl & van der Kamp, 2012) there is currently no method that allows distinguishing between/predicting of penalty kick strategies. Methods We advised soccer players to carry out penalty kicks under the terms of certain penalty kick strategies. Video footage of these penalty kicks was used for Experiment 1. That is, participants rated twelve different aspects of penalty kicks that were part of the created video footage. Based on data of Experiment 1 we calculated a logistic regression model to predict penalty kick strategy in Experiment 2. To this end participants rated the same twelve aspects of penalty kicks carried out at FIFA World Cups and UEFA European Football Championships. Results Results of Experiment 1 showed that penalty kick strategies differed in several aspects like gaze behavior, ball speed, run-up and kick accuracy as a consequence of different penalty kick strategies employed. This could be used to predict penalty kick strategies in Experiment 2. Discussion The results of this study can be useful for scouting in professional soccer as well as for scientific purposes. In research using a penalty kicking paradigm there should be controlled for effects of different penalty kick strategies. Scouting of opposing penalty kickers in professional soccer should also include preferred penalty kick strategy because different strategies call for different behavior of the goalkeeper. Incidence and success rates of both penalty kick strategies in professional soccer are also discussed. References NoŽl, B., & van der Kamp, J. (2012). Gaze behaviour during the soccer penalty kick: an investigation of the effects of strategy and anxiety. Int. J. Sport Psychol., 43, 326-345. van der Kamp, J. (2006). A field simulation study of the effectiveness of penalty kick strategies in soccer: Late alterations of kick direction increase errors and reduce accuracy. Journal of Sport Sciences, 24, 467-477.
Topic: Psychology
Keyword I: penalty kick strategy
Keyword II: gaze behavior
Keyword III: scouting