17th Annual ECSS-Congress, Bruges 2012

Abstract details

Abstract-ID: 395
Session: [MO-SH01] Health and fitness in children
Lecture room:
Date & time: 07.07.2017 / -
Authors: Sasaki, R., Ishizawa, J.
Institution: Keio University
Department: Institute of Physical Education
Country: Japan
Abstract text Introduction Kindergarteners on a playground engage in various locomotor activities. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills, and then various locomotive movements, such as hopping, galloping, and skipping, increase with age during play. Hopping is a rhythmically cyclic movement that requires significant muscular strength, multi-limb coordination, and dynamic balance in order to be performed proficiently (Gallahue et al, 2012). In this study, we clarified the developmental changes in coordinated movement, focusing on the hopping movement used during hopscotch. Methods Participants were typically developed preschool children (160 boys and girls) aged 46 years. They were asked to perform a set of rhythmic hopping movements, following a set sequence by hopping in a pattern, approximately 4 meters in length, with either one or two feet. We filmed all of their movements and analyzed the footage. Then, we evaluated every movement from the overall images using the following criteria: 1) completion of the task as a basic movement, and 2) rhythmically controlled and fluent switching of landings from one foot to two, and vice versa, during the task. Mastery of the movement was compared among age groups of children. Results The rate of accomplishing the task was higher in older children (>60%) than in younger children (~30%). Older children completed the task sequence with few or no problems. However, younger children had some difficulties, and paused and faltered while executing the sequence. From the observational analysis, older children showed more advanced performance than younger children did. Older children, particularly girls, showed more fluent switching in alternating one-foot and two-feet landings, and had more controlled movement sequences. Discussion The preschool and early elementary school years are important for learning and acquiring a good hopping technique (Gallahue et al., 2012). An adequate hopping pattern was shown at around 5 years of age, with girls showing this pattern several months earlier than boys did (Seefeldt and Haubenstricker, 1982). In this study, a noticeable change was observed in preschoolers aged 46 years, and a sex difference was observed as well. However, few children were evaluated as advanced because the task, like the hopscotch movement, was supposed to be difficult to follow with the rhythmic alternating changes. References Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC, Goodway JD (2012). Understanding Motor Development, 222-248. McGRAW-HILL, New York. Seefeldt V, and Haubenstricker J (1982). The Development of Movement Control and Co-ordination, 309-318. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Contact sasaki@z6.keio.jp
Topic: Motor Learning and Motor control
Keyword I: preschool children
Keyword II: hopping
Keyword III: motor development